Colorectal Cancer

What is Colorectal Cancer ?

The large intestine is part of the body's gastrointestinal (GI) tract or digestive system. The colon and rectum make up the large intestine, which plays an important role in the body's ability to process waste. The colon makes up the first 5 to 6 feet of the large intestine, and the rectum makes up the last 6 inches, ending at the anus

Colorectal cancer begins when healthy cells in the lining of the colon or rectum change and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor.

Types Of Colorectal Cancer

  • Colorectal cancer can begin in either the colon or the rectum.
  • Cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer.
  • Cancer that begins in the rectum is called rectal cancer.
  • Most colon and colorectal cancer are a type of tumor called adenocarcinoma, which is cancer of the cells that line the inside tissue of the colon and rectum.

Other types of cancer that occur far less often but can begin in the colon or rectum include

  • Neuroendocrine tumor of the GIT
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
  • Small cell carcinoma
  • Lymphoma

Symptoms Of Colorectal Cancer

Few of the symptoms of colorectal cancer could include:

  • Sudden change in bowel habits.
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Unable to completely empty the bowel.
  • Blood stained stools.
  • Blood from rectum.
  • Bloating of abdomen.
  • Sudden loss of weight.
  • Weakness
  • Tiredness
  • Lump in abdomen
  • Pain in the abdomen.
  • Anemia

How Is Colorectal Cancer Diagnosed ?

Diagnosis can be done with the help of following tests

  • Colonoscopy
  • Biopsy
  • Biomarker testing of the tumor
  • Blood tests
  • CT scan
  • MRI scan
  • PET-CT scan.

Treatment for Colorectal Cancer

Colon rectal cancer can be treated by utilising the following procedures based on the site of the cancer, stage and spread of the cancer

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Targeted Drug Therapy