Esophageal Cancer

What Is Esophageal Cancer ?

Esophagus is a hollow, muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Cancer begins when healthy cells change and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread.

Specifically, Cancer of the esophagus begins in the inner layer of the Esophageal wall and grows outward. If it spreads through the Esophageal wall, it can travel to lymph nodes, which are the small, bean-shaped organs that help fight infection, as well as the blood vessels in the chest and other nearby organs. esophageal cancer can also spread to the Lungs, liver, stomach, and other parts of the body.

Types Of Esophageal Cancer

There are 2 main types of Esophageal Cancer :

  • Squamous cell carcinoma This type of esophageal cancer starts in squamous cells that line the esophagus. It usually develops in the upper and middle part of the esophagus.
  • Adenocarcinoma This type begins in the glandular tissue in the lower part of the esophagus where the esophagus and the Stomach come together.

Risk Factors For Esophageal Cancer

The following factors may raise a person’s risk of developing esophageal cancer:

  • Age groups 45 to 70 have the highest risk of esophagealcancer.
  • Men are 3 to 4 times more likely than women to develop esophagealcancer.
  • Tobacco use or smoking.
  • Alcohol use.
  • To reflux back up to the esophagus.
  • Barrett’s Esophagus, a long time GERD can cause changes in the cells at the bottom of the esophagus which can increase the risk of adenocarcinoma.

How Is Esophageal Cancer Diagnosed ?

  • Endoscopy.
  • Barium Swallow: Uses x-ray to allow doctors to see the inside lining of the esophagus.
  • Biopsy
  • CT Scan.
  • PET Scan.
  • MRI Scan.

Treatment Of Esophageal Cancer

Treatment of esophageal cancer can be by a combination of below procedures and techniques:

  • Surgery.
  • Radiation Therapy.
  • Chemotherapy.
  • Targeted Therapy.
  • Immunotherapy.
  • Photodynamic therapy.
  • Electrocoagulation.
  • Cryotherapy.