Lung Cancer

About the Lung Cancer

When a person inhales, the Lungs absorb oxygen from the air and bring the oxygen into the bloodstream for delivery to the rest of the body. As the body’s cells use oxygen, they release carbon dioxide. The bloodstream carries carbon dioxide back to the Lungs, and the carbon dioxide leaves the body when a person exhales.

The Lungs contain many different types of cells. Most cells in the lung are epithelial cells. Epithelial cells line the airways and make mucus, which lubricates and protects the lung. The lung also contains nerve cells, hormone-producing cells, blood cells, and structural or supporting cells.

Lung Cancer

Cancer results when the cells in the body divide and multiply in an uncontrolled way. This is because of the mutations of the genes which regulate cell growth.

Lung Cancer is mainly of two types:

  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC),
  • Small cell lung cancer (SCLC).

NSCLC:

The different types of NSCLC are:

Adenocarcinoma : It is the most common form of NSCLC. It is usually found in the periphery of the lung.

Squamous cell carcinoma: It is usually found in the central part of the lung.

Large cell carcinoma

NSCLC-NOS (not otherwise specified) or NSCLC undifferentiated

SCLC:

SCLC contributes nearly 15-20 percent of lung cancer cases. It spreads and grows faster than NSCLC. It is usually found in the central part of the lung.

What Are The Risk Factors For Lung Cancer ?

Smoking: The higher is the number of cigarettes, and the more the number of years you have smoked; more is your chance of lung Cancer. Second hand smoke: Exposure to second hand smoke increases your chances of lung cancer as well.

Radiation: Any sort of radiation treatment to the chest can increase your risk. Chemicals: Exposure to chemicals such as asbestos or substances such as nickel, arsenic can increase your risk of lung Cancer.

Family History: History of lung cancer in the family, like to parents or siblings can increment your risk of lung cancer as well.

Symptoms Of Lung Cancer

Usually until late stage, lung cancer does not show any symptoms, such as:

  • Worsening cough
  • Blood in cough or phlegm
  • Pain chest during cough, laughing or taking a deep breath
  • Hoarseness
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Wheezing
  • Weakness and Fatigue

Can You Prevent Lung Cancer ?

Certain lifestyle modifications can help reduce the risk:

  • Quit Smoking.
  • Avoid second hand smoke.
  • Extra care at work if chemicals are involved.
  • Exercise well
  • Have a diet full of fruits & vegetables.

Investigations For Lung Cancer:

Staging: CECT chest + abdomen, PET CT, MRI Brain, Mediastinoscopy, EBUS. Diagnosis: Biopsy with IHC or Pleural fluid (fluid around the Lungs) cytology and Cell Block. Treatment: Molecular testing or genetic testing. The investigations will be advised by your oncologist after seeing the patient's general condition & clinical presentation.

Treatment ForLung Cancer

Based on the disease extent and stage the treatment plan can include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy.
  • Chemotherapy
  • SBRT (Stereotactic body radiotherapy)
  • Targeted drug therapy.
  • Immunotherapy