Prostate Cancer

What Is Prostate Cancer ?

The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located behind the base of the penis, in front of the rectum, and below the bladder. It is regulated by the testosterone hormone. This produces seminal fluid or commonly known as semen.

In prostate cancer, there is an abnormal growth of cells especially in the peripheral zone of the prostate which leads to enlargement of the prostate. As this gland surrounds the urethra (part of the urinary tract) so this leads to urinary problems.

Compared with other cancer types, prostate cancer is somewhat unusual. This is because many prostate tumors grow very slowly and do not spread quickly to other parts of the body. Therefore prostate cancer may not cause symptoms or problems for years or ever. Even when prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body, it often can be managed for a long time. So people with prostate cancer, and even those with advanced prostate cancer, are expected to live with good health and quality of life for many years.

The Possible Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer Can Include

  • Age: The risk of prostate cancer increases with age, especially after age 50.
  • Having a family history of prostate cancer, this is called familial prostate cancer, makes up about 20% of all prostate cancer.
  • Obesity
  • Genetic Factors.

The Symptoms And Signs Of Prostate Cancer May Include:

  • Frequent urination
  • Weak or interrupted urine flow or the need to strain to empty the Bladder
  • The urge to urinate frequently at night
  • Blood in the urine
  • New onset of erectile dysfunction
  • Pain or burning during urination, which is much less common
  • Discomfort or pain when sitting, caused by an enlarged prostate

It has to be kept in mind that other non-Cancerous conditions of the prostate, such as BPH or an enlarged prostate, can cause similar symptoms. It is advisable to consult the doctors for your concerns and get the correct diagnosis and treatment.

If Cancer Has Spread Outside Of The Prostate Gland, Symptoms May Include:

  • Pain in the back, hips, thighs, shoulders, or other bones
  • Swelling or fluid buildup in the legs or feet
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Change in bowel habits

How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed ?

A range of tests are recommended to confirm the diagnosis and stage of prostate cancer.

  • Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)
  • Biopsy
  • CT
  • MRI
  • Bone scan
  • PSMA PET CT scan

Treatment for Prostate Cancer

Based on the extent and spread of the disease, the common treatments for prostate cancer include

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy

External-beam radiation therapy is the most common type of radiation treatment. One method of external-beam radiation therapy used to treat prostate cancer is called hypofractionated radiation therapy. This is when a person receives a higher daily dose of radiation therapy given over a shorter period, instead of lower doses given over a longer period. Extreme hypofraction radiation therapy is when the entire treatment is delivered in 5 or fewer treatments. This is also called stereotactic body radiation therapy (sbrt) or stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (sabr).

Brachytherapy, or internal radiation therapy, is the insertion of radioactive sources directly into the prostate. These sources, called seeds, give off radiation just around the area where they are inserted and may be left for a short time (high-dose rate) or for a longer time (low-dose rate).

Systemic Therapy

The types of systemic therapies used for prostate cancer include:

  • Hormonal therapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Bone-modifying drugs

Focal therapies cryotherapy or cryoablation, High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can also be used, if applicable to the particular case scenario,

Note :

Screening tests are available to detect prostate cancer in an early stage. Screening for prostate cancer is done with the help of digital rectal examination (dre) and serum psa.

Person with age > 50- years should undergo screening for prostate cancer. If there is a family history of prostate or breast cancer then screening should be started at age 45 years annually.